After 30 years of research which involved more than 475,000 people, a team of American scientists came to the conclusion that men are on average more narcissistic than women.
This conclusion is confirmed over several generations and regardless of the age of the participants, as reported by the authors of the study published in the journal Psychological Bulletin.
“Narcissism is associated with several interpersonal dysfunction, including the inability to maintain healthy relationships over the long term, dishonest behavior and aggression,” says one of the authors of the study, Grijalva Emily School of Management University of Buffalo, USA.
During their research, the scientists examined more than 355 journal articles, dissertations, manuscripts and technical manuals in search of evidence that one gender was more narcissistic than the other.
Their findings showed that men were more likely than women to think that their privilege was due, which is a kind of narcissism. In addition, these gentlemen were more likely to hold sway over the others and impose their authority, says Dr. Grijalva, who cautions that this aspect of self-centeredness can be considered a positive trait of personality.
However, men and women are on an equal footing in terms of pride, vanity and self-indulgence.
A historical analysis of the data collected from university students between 1990 and 2013, however, shows that men do not become more narcissistic over the years, they have always been like that.
“Individuals tend to observe and integrate gender roles from an early age, and may have to deal with hostile reactions when they deviate from society’s expectations in this area,” said Dr. Grijalva. “There are these stereotypes where it’s more acceptable for men to exhibit … dominance and assertiveness, whereas women, on the other hand are stereotyped as being communal, nurturing and caring,” she added.